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Parolas GrammaticModificar

Grammatical Words

§134Modificar

Nota: Le spheras de grammatica e vocabulario imbrica proque ambes se preoccupa de ille "parve parolas" que es necessari pro exprimer le relation inter le vocabulos o expressiones que constitue un enunciation complete. Iste parolas, hic pro convenientia nominate "particulas grammatic," ha functiones grammatic. Assi illos es classificate generalmente non in un proprie categoria, sed como prepositiones, conjunctiones, pronomines, adverbios, e similes.Modificar

Note: The spheres of grammar and vocabulary overlap in that both are concerned with those "little words" which are needed to express the relationship between the words or phrases making up a complete statement. These words are grammatical functionaries (here conveniently labeled "grammatical words"), and as such they are generally classed not in a special category of their own but as prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, adverbs, and the like.

Ab le puncto de vista de Interlingua "particulas grammatic," totevia, forma un gruppo de significantia peculiar proque lor extension international comparate con le grande majoritate de vocabulos de Interlingua es assatis restricte. Pro le majoritate del usatores de Interlingua le "particulas grammatic" constitue le unic obstaculo seriose in apprender le lingua.Modificar

From the point of view of Interlingua "grammatical words" do, however, form a group of peculiar significance because their international range compared with that of the bulk of Interlingua words is fairly restricted. For most users of Interlingua the "grammatical words" constitute the one and only serious learning obstacle.

Le extension restricte de internationalitate del "particulas grammatic" es debite al facto que lor equivalentes in le varie linguas national es si intimemente associate con cosas basic de structura grammatic que illos non pare haber invadite le dominio de altere linguas a grande mesura. Un parola francese como {cigarette} ha cambiate al anglese sin multe difficultate; le parola francese {sans} como usate in le anglese retene su sapor estranier post multe seculos.Modificar

The restricted international range of "grammatical words" is due to the fact that their counterparts in the various national languages are so closely associated with matters of basic grammatical structure that they seem to be prevented from invading the realm of other languages on a large scale. A French word like cigarette has turned English without much trouble; the French word sans as used in English retains its foreign flavor after these many centuries.

Pro illustrar ulteriormente: Le parlator de un altere lingua – que nos dice un francese – pote trovar difficile comprender le enunciation anglese simple:Modificar

Our guests started coming in right after we got back from town.Modificar

Ille es adjutate per le version:Modificar

Our visitors began to arrive right after we returned from town.Modificar

E como un ultime recurso, il ha in plus le possibilitate que ille pote comprender le version: Modificar

Our visitors commenced to arrive immediately after we returned from the city.Modificar

To illustrate further: The speaker of another language - let us say a Frenchman - may find it difficult to understand the simple English statement: "Our guests started coming in right after we got back from town." He may be helped by the version: "Our visitors began to arrive right after we returned from town." And as a last resort there is still the possibility that he may understand the version: "Our visitors commenced to arrive immediately after we returned from the city."

Le prime version se compone de parolas specificamente anglese. Le ultime version usa in vice, in tanto que possibile, variantes anglese de parolas international que un francese comprende proque illos occurre in su proprie lingua – in formas un pauco differente, i.e. specificamente francese.Modificar

The first version is composed of peculiarly English words. The last version uses instead as far as possible the English variants of international words which the Frenchman understands because they occur - in slightly different, that is, peculiarly French forms - in his own language.

Con un grado major o minor de artificio, il es possibile parlar e scriber qualcunque lingua occidental in vocabulos que es quasi integremente variantes national de materia representate in le vocabulario international. Sed il remane in omne casos un corpore substantial de vocabulos que resiste a iste artificio de internationalisar un lingua national. In le exemplo justo usate, iste corpore de recalcitrante vocabulos es representate con parolas como {our}, {to}, {after}, {we}, {from}, e {the}. Omne istes es particulas grammatic ben que alicunes, como {after} e {we}, combina un function grammatic con un significato clarmente palpabile.Modificar

With a greater or lesser degree of artifice it is possible to speak and write any one of the Western languages in words which are almost entirely national variants of material represented in the international vocabulary. But there remains in all cases a substantial body of words which resist this trick of internationalizing a national language. In the example just used this body of recalcitrants is represented by words like our, to, after, we, from, and the. All of them are grammatical words although some of them, as after and we, combine a grammatical function with a clearly palpable meaning.

Le Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED) include un stock multo liberal de particulas grammatic. In addition al particulas que es international secundo le definition functionante del termino in le Dictionario, il ha numerose formas que pareva compatibile con le character general del vocabulario international assi que lor inclusion poteva servir a allargar le appello e le utilitate del Dictionario.Modificar

The Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED) includes a very liberal supply of grammatical words. In addition to those which happen to be international in accordance with the Dictionary's working definition of the term, there are numerous forms which seemed compatible with the general character of the international vocabulary so that their inclusion could serve to broaden the appeal and usefulness of the Dictionary.

Un lista minimal de particulas grammatic seque. Iste lista se restringe al particulas considerate indispensabile pro le operation del lingua e pote esser supplementate per material additional – specialmente expressiones con functiones grammatic – prendite del IED. Un numero de parolas que le IED lista in duo equalmente correcte formas appare in basso solmente in un alternativa. Isto non implica que le secunde es considerate minus desirabile. Le pares in question es: Modificar

alicun - alcun

aliquando - alquando

aliquanto - alquanto

alique - alco

a pena - apena

depost - depois

haber - haver

hic - ci

illac - la

illa - ella

ille - celle

jam - ja

pauc - poc

secundo - secun

semper - sempre

si non - sinon

subinde - sovente

tanto - tan

vice - vece

A minimum list of grammatical words follows. It is restricted to items considered indispensable for the operation of the language and may be enlarged by further material - especially phrases with grammatical functions - drawn from the IED. A number of words which the IED lists in two equally correct forms appears below in one alternate only. This does not imply that the second is considered less desirable. The pairs in question are: alicun - alcun; aliquando - alquando; aliquanto - alquanto; alique - alco; a pena - apena; depost - depois; haber - haver; hic - ci; illac - la; illa - ella; ille - celle; jam - ja; pauc - poc; secundo - secun; semper - sempre; si non - sinon; subinde - sovente; tanto - tan; vice – vece.

a Modificar

to; at

ab Modificar

prep since, from

alias Modificar

otherwise, in another manner; alias; at another time

alibi Modificar

elsewhere

ali(c)- Modificar

any-, some-

alicubi Modificar

somewhere; anywhere

alicun Modificar

some, any; a few;

alicun cosa Modificar

something, anything

alicuno Modificar

someone, somebody; anyone, anybody

aliquando Modificar

sometime; at any time

aliquanto Modificar

somewhat, to some degree

aliqueModificar

pron something, anything

aliqueModificar

adv somewhat

alora Modificar

then; in that case, consequently

alto Modificar

top

in alto Modificar

up; upwards; upstairs; on top

ambe Modificar

adj both;

ambes Modificar

pron both

an Modificar

interrogative particle; conj whether

an il habe le libro? Modificar

has he the book?

ancora Modificar

adv still, yet; interj encore

anque Modificar

also, too;

anque io Modificar

me too

non solo ... ma anque Modificar

not only ... but also

anteModificar

prep before, in front of; earlier than; above

anteModificar

adv before, ahead; earlier; forward

ante que Modificar

before

ante-heri Modificar

day before yesterday

a pena Modificar

hardly, scarcely

apud Modificar

near, with, at, by

assatis Modificar

adv enough; rather, fairly, quite

assi Modificar

thus, so

assi ... como Modificar

as ... as

avante Modificar

before, in front, ahead; forward

basso Modificar

bottom

a basso Modificar

down, downward

in basso Modificar

down, below, downward; downstairs

bastanteModificar

adj enough, sufficient

bastanteModificar

adv enough, sufficiently

ben que Modificar

although

bis Modificar

twice; encore

cata Modificar

adj each;

cata uno Modificar

each (one)

causa Modificar

cause

a causa de Modificar

because of

certo Modificar

certainly

circa Modificar

around, about; approximately

como Modificar

how; as, like;

como si Modificar

as though, as if

comocunque Modificar

however, in whatever way

con Modificar

with, together with; by means of

concernente Modificar

concerning

contraModificar

prep opposite, facing; against

contraModificar

adv opposite, facing; on the contrary

cuje Modificar

whose

-cunque Modificar

-ever

de Modificar

from, since; of, belonging to; made of; with, by means of

de (+ inf) Modificar

to

deman Modificar

tomorrow

deman matino Modificar

tomorrow morning

deman vespere Modificar

tomorrow night

depostModificar

adv afterwards, later

depostModificar

prep after, since

depost que Modificar

since, from the time that

desde Modificar

prep since, from

dum Modificar

while, as long as; until; provided that, if only

dunque Modificar

therefore

durante Modificar

during

durante que Modificar

while, whilst

e Modificar

and

e ... eModificar

both ... and

ecce Modificar

lo!, see!, behold!; here is, here are

ergo Modificar

therefore, accordingly, consequently, then, ergo

esque Modificar

interrogative particle

esque ille ha le libro? Modificar

has he the book?

et cetera, etc. Modificar

and so forth, and so on, et cetera, etc.

etiam Modificar

also, likewise, too; even, even yet, yet;

non solmente ... sed etiam Modificar

not only... but also

ex Modificar

out of, from

excepte Modificar

except, excepting

extraModificar

adv without, on the outside; besides, in addition, extra;

extraModificar

prep outside of, without, beyond; except, excepting; besides, in addition to

forasModificar

adv out of doors, outside, out; from without

forasModificar

prep beyond, except

foras de Modificar

outside of, without

foras de se Modificar

beside oneself

forsan Modificar

perhaps, maybe

gratis Modificar

gratis, free of charge

haber Modificar

to have

il ha Modificar

there is, there are

heri Modificar

yesterday

hic Modificar

here

de hic a (un hora) Modificar

(an hour) from now

usque (a) hic Modificar

up to here, thus far; up to now, hitherto;

hic juncte Modificar

herewith

hodie Modificar

today

ibi Modificar

there

ibidem Modificar

in the same place; ibidem ibid.,; Ib.

idem Modificar

the same (thing); idem; id.

igitur Modificar

adv/conj then, therefore, thereupon

il Modificar

impers pron it

illa Modificar

she, her

illac Modificar

there

ille Modificar

he, it; him; that, the former

illes Modificar

they; them

illo Modificar

it

in Modificar

in, into

infraModificar

adv below, underneath, beneath

infraModificar

prep below, under, beneath

insimul Modificar

together

inter Modificar

between, among

interim Modificar

meanwhile, in the meantime

intertanto Modificar

meanwhile, in the meantime

intra Modificar

adv/prep within

intro Modificar

inwardly, internally, on the inside, in

io Modificar

I

ipse Modificar

myself, yourself, himself, etc.

hodie ipse Modificar

this very day

iste Modificar

this, the latter

ita Modificar

thus, so; just so, yes; and so, consequent]y; accordingly

jam Modificar

already, at once, right away; just now, a moment ago; indeed, surely

non... jam Modificar

no longer

jammais Modificar

ever, at any time

non... jammais Modificar

never

jammais! Modificar

never!

justo Modificar

just, exactly

justo nunc, justo ora Modificar

just now, right now

juxtaModificar

adv near, near by

juxtaModificar

prep near, near to, next to

la Modificar

her

le Modificar

art the

le Modificar

pron him

les Modificar

them

lo Modificar

it

lo que Modificar

that which, what

loco Modificar

place

in loco de Modificar

instead of

in su loco Modificar

instead

longe Modificar

far; away, far away

de longe Modificar

from afar, from a distance

lontan Modificar

distant, far-off

lor Modificar

their

lore Modificar

their

ma Modificar

but

non solo ... ma anque Modificar

not only... but also

malgrado Modificar

in spite of

maniera Modificar

manner, way

de maniera que Modificar

so that

me Modificar

me

melio Modificar

adv better

tanto melio Modificar

so much the better

melior Modificar

adj better

le melior Modificar

the best

mesme Modificar

same; myself, yourself, himself, etc. (as in "the king himself")

mesmo Modificar

likewise; even

hodie mesmo Modificar

this very day

ora mesmo Modificar

right now

mi Modificar

my

mie Modificar

mine

minus Modificar

less; minus

a minus que Modificar

unless

al minus Modificar

at least

totos minus ille Modificar

all but him

le minus Modificar

the least

multo Modificar

very; much

nam Modificar

for

nemo Modificar

no one, nobody

ni Modificar

neither, nor, also not

nihil, nil Modificar

nothing

nimie Modificar

adj too much, too many

nimis Modificar

adv too, too much

no Modificar

adj no

non Modificar

not; no

si non Modificar

if not; except, unless it be

nondum Modificar

not yet

nonne Modificar

interrogative particle is it not?

il es ver, nonne? Modificar

it is true, isn't it?

nonobstanteModificar

prep despite, in spite of

nonobstanteModificar

adv nevertheless

nos Modificar

us, we

nostre Modificar

our, ours

nulle Modificar

adj not any, no; null, worthless, without legal force

nullemente Modificar

in no way, not at all

nunc Modificar

now

nunquam Modificar

never

nusquam Modificar

nowhere

o Modificar

or

o ... o Modificar

either ... or

olim Modificar

once, formerly; at a future time, sometime (in the future)

omne Modificar

adj all; each, every

de omne mano Modificar

from every hand

de omne latere Modificar

from every side

in omne caso Modificar

in any case

omne cosa Modificar

everything

omnes Modificar

pron all

on Modificar

one

ora Modificar

now

parte Modificar

part

a parte Modificar

apart, aside

in parte Modificar

in part

del parte de Modificar

on the part of

de parte a parte Modificar

through and through

in nulle parte Modificar

nowhere

passato Modificar

ago

pauc Modificar

adj little, not much; few

un pauc (de) Modificar

a little

pauc a pauc Modificar

little by little

in pauc Modificar

shortly, before long

pauco Modificar

adv little

per Modificar

through; during, throughout; by, through, by means of; per

perque Modificar

adv/conj why; because

plus Modificar

more; plus

le plus Modificar

the most

de plus Modificar

furthermore, besides

de plus in plus Modificar

more and more

in plus Modificar

further more, in addition, also

al plus Modificar

at best

plus o minus Modificar

more or less

non ... plus Modificar

no more; no longer

pois Modificar

adv afterwards, thereafter; conj for

pois que Modificar

since, as, because

postModificar

adv behind, back, backwards; afterwards, after

postModificar

prep behind; after

post que Modificar

since, because

postea Modificar

afterwards, thereafter

postquam Modificar

conj after; as soon as

potius Modificar

rather; sooner

presso Modificar

adv/prep near, close

a presso de Modificar

at the home of; in care of; with, among

presto Modificar

presto, quickly, quick as a wink

preterModificar

adj past, beyond

preterModificar

prep past, along, alongside of; beyond; except, excepting; in addition to

pridem Modificar

long ago

pro Modificar

for, in favor of; in exchange for, in place of

pro (+ inf) Modificar

(in order) to

proque Modificar

adv/conj why; because

qual Modificar

which; what

le qual Modificar

which; that; who

qualcunque Modificar

any, whatever

quando Modificar

adv/conj when

quandocunque Modificar

whenever

quante Modificar

adj how much, how many

quanto Modificar

adv as much as; as far as

quanto ... tanto Modificar

the ... the

quanto a Modificar

as for

quare Modificar

wherefore, why

quasi Modificar

almost, nearly; in a certain sense, in a way

quasi que Modificar

as if

queModificar

interr pron what

queModificar

rel pron who, whom, which, that

qui Modificar

who, whom

de qui Modificar

whose

quia Modificar

because, for

quicunque Modificar

whoever, whomever, whosoever

quoModificar

adv whither, where; wherefore

quoModificar

conj so that, in order that

re Modificar

about, concerning

retro Modificar

back, backwards; ago

a retro Modificar

backwards

salvo Modificar

save, but, but for

salvo que Modificar

save that, but that

satis Modificar

enough; rather, somewhat

esser satis Modificar

to be enough

haber satis Modificar

to have enough

satis de (tempore, etc.) Modificar

enough (time, etc.)

se Modificar

refl pron himself; herself; itself; themselves

secundo Modificar

prep (following) after; along, by; according to

secundo que Modificar

according as

sed Modificar

but

semper Modificar

always

siModificar

adv thus, so; yes

si ... como Modificar

as... as

siModificar

conj if; whether

si non Modificar

if not; except, unless it be

sia Modificar

be, may be, let there be

sia ... sia Modificar

be (it) ... or be (it); whether ... or

qual que sia Modificar

whatever, whatsoever

sin Modificar

prep without

sol Modificar

adj sole, alone, only

viver sol Modificar

to live alone

sentir se sol Modificar

to feel lonesome, lonely

solo Modificar

adv only, merely

non solo ... ma anque Modificar

not only... but also

su Modificar

his, her, its

sub Modificar

prep under, below, beneath

subinde Modificar

immediately after, just after, forthwith; repeatedly, frequently, often, from time to time

subito Modificar

suddenly, unexpectedly

subtus Modificar

adv below, beneath, underneath

sue Modificar

his, hers, its

superModificar

prep on, upon; on top of; over, above; about, concerning, on

superModificar

adv above, on top

super toto Modificar

above all

supraModificar

prep above, over

supraModificar

adv on the top, above

sur Modificar

on, upon; on top of

tal Modificar

such, such a

tal e tal Modificar

such and such

talmente Modificar

adv so

un libro talmente belle Modificar

so beautiful a book, such a beautiful book

tamen Modificar

yet, however, nevertheless, not withstanding

tante Modificar

adj so much, so many

tante per cento Modificar

so much per hundred, percent age

tante ... como Modificar

as much, as many... as

tanto Modificar

adv so, so much

tanto ... como Modificar

as much... as

in tanto que Modificar

in as much as

tanto plus ... que Modificar

all the more... that

quanto ... tanto Modificar

the... the

tarde Modificar

adj late

plus tarde Modificar

later; later on

al plus tarde Modificar

at the latest

te Modificar

you, thee; yourself, thyself

tosto Modificar

presently, soon, promptly

plus tosto Modificar

rather, sooner

si tosto que Modificar

as soon as

tote Modificar

adj all; every, each

tote le (homines) Modificar

all (men)

totos Modificar

all, everyone

de tote (le) corde Modificar

wholeheartedly

tote (le) duo Modificar

both

totevia Modificar

yet, still, nevertheless

toto Modificar

n all, everything

le toto Modificar

the whole

super toto Modificar

above all

ante toto Modificar

before all

post toto Modificar

after all

del toto Modificar

at all

in toto Modificar

entirely, wholly, in toto

toto Modificar

adv all, quite, wholly

trans Modificar

across, over, beyond, on the farther side of

troppo Modificar

too, too much

troppo (de) (libros, etc.) Modificar

too many (books, etc.)

troppo (de) (aqua, etc.) Modificar

too much (water, etc.)

de troppo Modificar

superfluous, in the way, de trop

tu Modificar

your, thy

tue Modificar

yours, thine

tunc Modificar

then

ubiModificar

adv where

ubiModificar

conj where; when; as soon as; wherewith; in which

a ubi Modificar

where, whither

de ubiModificar

from where, whence

ubicunque Modificar

wherever

ubique Modificar

everywhere; anywhere, wheresoever, wherever

ultraModificar

adv on the other side, beyond, farther

ultraModificar

prep on the farther side of; beyond, past; besides

ultra illo Modificar

besides, moreover

ultra que Modificar

aside from the fact that

un Modificar

a, an

le un le altere Modificar

one another, each other

le unes le alteres Modificar

one another, each other

uno Modificar

indef pron one

unquam Modificar

ever, at any time

usquam Modificar

somewhere

usqueModificar

prep (all the way) to, up to; till, until

usque nunc Modificar

up to now

verso Modificar

towards, to

viaModificar

adv away; off

viaModificar

prep by way of, via

via! Modificar

go away!, begone!

vice Modificar

turn, stead; time (as in "three times")

alicun vices Modificar

sometimes

un vice Modificar

once; on one occasion; formerly

un vice que Modificar

once, once that

in vice de Modificar

instead of; a vices: at times

altere vice Modificar

a second time

plure vices Modificar

several times, repeatedly

viste Modificar

considering

viste queModificar

considering that

voluntarie Modificar

willingly, readily, gladly, with pleasure

vos Modificar

you; yourself, yourselves

vostre Modificar

your, yours

ya Modificar

adv indeed, certainly, of course

ya (io lo crede) Modificar

(I) do (believe it)

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