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Appendice 1Modificar

Appendix 1

Verbos de duple themaModificar

Double-Stem Verbs

Il pote esser importante notar que le termino "secunde thema irregular de verbos" como usate in iste grammatica non debe esser permittite evocar le spectro de irregularitates verbal characteristic del majoritate de linguas ethnic. In Interlingua le secunde thema irregular de verbos ha nihil a facer con le question de conjugation. Illo es un thema que occurre in certe substantivos e adjectivos derivate e los impedi de assumer formas innaturalmente distorte, como per exemplo scribitura in loco de scriptura (de scriber), corrumpitive in loco de corruptive (de corrumper), incidition in loco de incision (de incider), etc. De plus le typo "regular", scribitura, corrumpitive, incidition, etc., non necessarimente debe esser considerate "erronee" sed pote esser usate quandocunque il pare stilisticamente possibile o preferibile.Modificar

It may be important to note that the term "irregular second stem of verbs" as used in this grammar must not be allowed to conjure up the specter of verbal irregularities characteristic of most ethnic languages. In Interlingua the irregular second stem of verbs has nothing to do with matters of conjugation. It is a stem which occurs in certain derived nouns and adjectives and prevents these from assuming unnaturally distorted forms, as for instance scribitura instead of scriptura (from scriber), corrumpitive instead of corruptive (from corrumper), incidition instead of incision (from incider), etc. Furthermore the "regular" type, scribitura, corrumpitive, incidition, etc., need not be considered "wrong" but may be used whenever it seems stylistically possible or preferable.

In construction active de vocabulos, il essera discoperite que le secunde thema irregular causa pauc difficultates e sovente simplifica le processo de derivation. Derivar, per exemplo, le forma "regular" collidition de collider non es facile pro alicuno qui parla como su lingua native anglese o qualcunque altere lingua del civilisation occidental, durante que le uso del thema "irregular" collis- con un resultante collision pare natural e assi multo facile.Modificar

In active word building it will be found that the irregular second stem occasions few difficulties but often simplifies the process of derivation. To derive, for instance, the "regular" form collidition from collider is not easy for anyone speaking as his native language English or any of the other languages of Western Civilization, while the use of the "irregular" stem collis- with a resulting collision seems natural and hence easy.

Finalmente, on non debe ignorar le facto que construction active de vocabulos es in practica rarmente un question de derivar un parola de un altere in un vacuo, pro si dicer, sed plus tosto un question de adaptar un nove formation in un patrono de plures que jam es familiar. Pro illustrar: Quicunque require un adjectivo a accompaniar, que nos dice, le verbo extraher [-trah-/-tract-], va spontaneemente cunear extractive, non como le resultato laboriose de attachar -ive al verbo sed plus tosto proque extractive se conforma al patrono de vocabulos jam cognoscite, como extraher, extractor, extraction, extrahente. Le nove formation extractive non es – parlante psychologicamente e pedagogicamente – derivate de un 'extraher' isolate. Illo es formate de 'extraher' in le presentia de extraction, extractor, etc.Modificar

Finally one must not overlook the fact that active word building is in practice rarely a matter of deriving one word from another in a vacuum, so to speak, but rather a matter of fitting a new formation into a pattern of several familiar ones. To illustrate: Anyone needing an adjective to go with let us say extraher 'to extract,' will spontaneonsly coin extractive, not as the laborious result of attaching -ive to the verb but rather because extractive fits into the pattern of words already known, like extraher, extractor, extraction, extrahente. The new formation extractive is not - psychologically and pedagogically speaking - derived from an isolated extraher. It is fashioned from extraher in the presence of extraction, extractor, etc.

Omne verbo cuje secunde thema non resulta del prime per le simple addition de -at- o -it- es accompaniate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary per un plen indication de su duo themas. Un exposition descriptive del secunde thema irregular de verbos pote totevia esser trovate utile pro certe propositos e es essayate in le paragraphos sequente. Nota que infinitivos que non appare in le Interlingua-English Dictionary es listate infra in parentheses.Modificar

Every verb whose second stem does not result from the first by the simple addition of -at- or -it- is accompanied in the Interlinqua-English Dictionary by a full statement of its two stems. A descriptive survey of the irregular second stem of verbs may still be found useful for certain purposes and is attempted in the following paragraphs. Note that infinitives which do not appear in the Interlingua-Enqlish Dictionary are listed below within parentheses.

Nulle verbo derivate pote unquam haber un secunde thema irregular. Verbos como fusionar (de fusion), degradar (de grado), normalisar (de normal), falsificar (de false), blanchir (de blanc), etc. es sempre regular.Modificar

No derived verb can ever have an irregular second stem. Verbs like fusionar (from fusion), degrader (from grado), normalisar (from normal), falsificar (from false), blanchir (from blanc), etc. are always regular.

Verbos composite, sia formate con prefixos (componer, imprimer, interrogar, etc.), sia essente le formas composite de vocabulos integre (calefacer, benedicer, etc.), seque le patrono del correspondente verbos simple in respecto a regularitate o irregularitate de lor secunde themas. Nota que le vocal de thema de verbos composite con prefixos differe occasionalmente del correspondente vocal del verbo simple, un phenomeno que non es a conservar in composition active. Tal verbos composite sovente recupera o se approcha al vocal original – le vocal del verbo simple – in lor secunde themas irregular. Modificar

Compound verbs - whether formed with prefixes (componer, imprimer, interroger, etc.) or the compounding forms of full-fledged words (calefacer, benedicer, etc.) follow the pattern of the corresponding simple verbs in regard to regularity or irregularity of their second stems. Note that the stem vowel of verbs compounded with prefixes differs occasionally from the corresponding vowel of the simple verb, a phenomenon not to be preserved in active compounding. Such compounded verbs often recover or approach the original vowel- the vowel of the simple verb-in their irregular second stem.

a → iModificar

ager
rediger

a → iModificar

ag-
redig-

a → aModificar

act-
redact-

a → iModificar

facer
conficer

a → iModificar

fac-
confic-

a → eModificar

fact-
confect-

e → iModificar

leger
colliger

e → iModificar

leg-
collig-

e → eModificar

lect- collect-

Verbos cuje infinitivos termina in -ar ha un secunde thema irregular in solo tres casos exceptional:Modificar

Verbs whose infinitive ends in -ar have an irregular second stem in only three exceptional instances.

fricarModificar

fric-
frict-

juvar Modificar

juv-
jut-

secar Modificar

sec-
sect-

Verbos cuje infinitivos termina in -ir ha un secunde thema irregular in le casos exceptional sequente:Modificar

Verbs whose infinitives end in -ir have an irregular second stem in the following exceptional instances:

(aborir) Modificar

abor-
abort-

aperir Modificar

aper-
apert-

coperir Modificar

coper-
copert-

experir Modificar

exper-
expert-

haurir Modificar

haur-
haust-

metir Modificar

met-
mens-

morir Modificar

mor-
mort-

patir Modificar

pat-
pass-

salir Modificar

sal-
salt-

sancir Modificar

sanc-
sanct-

sarcir Modificar

sarc-
sart-

sentir Modificar

sent-
sens-

venir Modificar

ven-
vent-

Omne altere verbos con secunde themas irregular ha infinitivos que termina in -er. Iste constatation non pote esser revertite. Non omne verbos que termina in -er ha secunde themas irregular. Sed cf. §148.Modificar

All other verbs with irregular second stems have infinitives ending in -er. This statement cannot be reversed. Not all verbs ending in -er have irregular second stems. But cf. §148.

Verbos con infinitivos in -er que ha un secunde thema irregular pote esser gruppate como seque:Modificar

Verbs with infinitives in -er which have an irregular second stem can be grouped as follows:

1. Modificar

Quando le prime thema termina in -c, -l, -n, -p, -r, -u, -x, le secunde thema normalmente es formate per le addition de -t. Exemplos:Modificar

1. When the first stem ends in c, l, n, p, r, u, x, the second stem is normally formed by the addition of t. Examples:

docer Modificar

doc-
doct-

ducer Modificar

duc-
duct-

(consuler) Modificar

consul-
consult-

tener Modificar

ten-
tent-

caper Modificar

cap-
capt-

raper Modificar

rap-
rapt-

parer Modificar

par-
part-

offerer Modificar

offer-
offert-

(serer) Modificar

ser-
sert-

-luer Modificar

-lu-
-lut-

tribuer Modificar

tribu-
tribut-

(tuer) Modificar

tu-
tut-

texer Modificar

tex-
text-

2.Modificar

Quando le prime thema termina in -sc, iste desinentia es reducite ante le -t que es addite pro formar le secunde thema in le exemplos sequente:Modificar

2. When the first stem ends in sc, this ending is reduced before the t added to form the second stem in the following examples:

crescer Modificar

cresc-
cret-

miscer Modificar

misc-
mixt-

(noscer) Modificar

nosc-
not-

cognoscer Modificar

cognosc-
cognit-

pascer Modificar

pasc-
past-

quiescer Modificar

quiesc-
quiet-

3.Modificar

Per le addition de -t pro formar le secunde thema, le sono (e orthographia) concludente del prime thema es normalmente afficite como seque: -b deveni -p; -g e -h deveni -c; -m deveni -mp; -qu deveni -cu; -v deveni -u. Exemplos:Modificar

3. Through the addition of t to form the second stem, the concluding sound (and spelling) of the first stem is normally affected as follows: <I<b</i> becomes p; g and h become c; m becomes mp; qu becomes cu; v becomes </i>u. Examples:

scriber Modificar

scrib-
script-

sorber Modificar

sorb-
sorpt-

ager Modificar

ag-
act-

reger Modificar

reg-
rect-

traher Modificar

trah-
tract-

veher Modificar

veh-
vect-

emer Modificar

em-
empt-

sumer Modificar

sum-
sumpt-

(loquer) Modificar

loqu-
locut-

sequer Modificar

sequ-
secut-

solver Modificar

solv-
solut-

volver Modificar

volv-
volut-

4. Modificar

In le casos sequente, le -r final del prime thema deveni un -s ante le -t que es addite pro formar le secunde thema:Modificar

4. In the following instances the final r of the first stem becomes an s before the t added to form the second stem:

gerer Modificar

ger-
gest-

haurir Modificar

haur-
haust-

querer Modificar

quer-
quest-

torrer Modificar

torr-
tost-

urer Modificar

ur-
ust-

5.Modificar

Quando le prime thema termina in -d o -t (etiam -tt), le secunde thema es normalmente formate per cambiar iste consonantes a -s o -ss. Exemplos:Modificar

When the first stem ends in d or t (also tt), the second stem is normally formed by changing these consonants to s or ss.

(ceder) Modificar

ced-
cess-

seder Modificar

sed-
sess-

cader Modificar

cad-
cas-

vider Modificar

vid-
vis-

-luder Modificar

-lud-
-lus-

scander Modificar

scand-
scans-

prender Modificar

prend-
prens-

tender Modificar

tend-
tens-

(uter) Modificar

ut-
us-

verter Modificar

vert-
vers-

mitter Modificar

mitt-
miss-

Similarmente -ct es cambiate a -x. Exemplos:Modificar

Similarly ct is changed to x. Examples:

flecter Modificar

flect-
flex-

(necter) Modificar

nect-
nex-

6.Modificar

In le casos sequente, le secunde thema es formate per le addition de -s al prime thema.Modificar

6. In the following instances the second stem is formed by the addition of s to the first stem.

(celler) Modificar

cell-
cels-

censer Modificar

cens-
cens-

currer Modificar

curr-
curs-

figer Modificar

fig-
fix-

-herer Modificar

-her-
-hes-

laber Modificar

lab-
laps-

merger Modificar

merg-
mers-

mulger Modificar

mulg-
muls-

(peller) Modificar

pell-
puls-

sparger Modificar

sparg-
spars-

torquer Modificar

torqu-
tors-

-veller Modificar

-vell-
-vuls-

7.Modificar

Le verbos sequente que pertine a uno o altere del categorias precedente es in plus characterisate per le suppression de -m e -n in le secunde thema: Modificar

The following verbs which belong in one or another of the preceding categories are further characterized by the suppression of m and n in the second stem:

contemner Modificar

contemn-
contempt-

finger Modificar

fing-
fict-

finder Modificar

find-
fiss-

franger Modificar

frang-
fract-

funder Modificar

fund-
fus-

(panger) Modificar

pang-
pact-

pinger Modificar

ping-
pict-

rumper Modificar

rump-
rupt-

scinder Modificar

scind-
sciss-

stringer Modificar

string-
strict-

tanger Modificar

tang-
tact-

tunder Modificar

tund-
tus-

vincer Modificar

vinc-
vict-

(siner) Modificar

sin-
sit-

8.Modificar

Varie irregularitates non coperite in le categorias precedente appare in le verbos sequente: Modificar

8. Various irregularities not covered in the preceding categories appear in the following verbs:

compler Modificar

comple-
complet-

deler Modificar

dele-
delet-

mover Modificar

mov-
mot-

vover Modificar

vov-
vot-

cerner Modificar

cern-
-cret-

coler Modificar

col-
cult-

(sterner) Modificar

stern-
strat-

distinguer Modificar

distingu-
distinct-

extinguer Modificar

extingu-
extinct-

(instinguer) Modificar

instingu-
instinct-

struer Modificar

stru-
struct-

-ferer Modificar

-fer-
-lat-

offerer Modificar

offer-
offert-, oblat-

fluer Modificar

flu-
fluct-, flux-

fruer Modificar

fru-
fruct-, fruit-

indulger Modificar

indulg-
indult-

(linquer) Modificar

linqu-
lict-

poner Modificar

pon-
posit-, post-

premer Modificar

prem-
press-

prender Modificar

prend-
prens-, pris-

surger Modificar

surg-
surrect-

tender Modificar

tend-
tens-, tent-

(terer) Modificar

ter-
trit-

torquer Modificar

torqu-
tort-, tors-

(tuer) Modificar

tu-
tut-, tuit-

verter Modificar

vert-
vers-, -ors-

vider Modificar

vid-
vis-,vist-

volver Modificar

volv-
volut-, volt-

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